Automatic Density Meter

The Rudolph DDM 2911 Plus / 2911 / 2910 / 2909 Density Meters have the features to meet all the present day industrial needs.

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Digital Refractometer

Rudolph have a large bouquet of various models of Refractometers to choose from. It varies depending on the application, the RI range, accuracy, budget among others.

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Digital Polarimeters

Rudolph manufactures various models of Polarimeters depending on accuracy, resolution, application, Temperature maintenance and budget. They vary from Autopol I to Autopol VI

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AUTOPOL VII Automatic Polarimeter

Rudolph’s latest in the series of Polarimeter - Autpol VII comes with fully automated sample loading combined with versatile sample loading, cell cleaning, rinsing, and drying built-In quartz plates automatically performing 3 point validation etc. comes as a total package.

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Portable Brix Meter

KEM, Japan Brixmeter model BX-1 is an automatic, digital system with an LCD display. The range is continuous between 0 – 85%Brix. The resolution is 0.1%Brix. This system is equipped with temperature compensation and has an IP-65 protection. This means that the system can be washed under the tap directly for cleaning the previous sample.

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Portable Density Meter

The KEM, Japan portable Densitymeter model DA-130N is a microprocessor controlled system with an LCD display. It operates out of the ASTM approved "oscillation of the U-tube" method. It displays Density, Temperature-compensated Density, Specific Gravity, Temperature-compensated Specific Gravity, Brix%, Alcohol Concentration, Sulfuric Acid Concentration, API degree, Baume degree, Plato degree, Proof degree etc.

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Portable Refractometer

KEM, Japan portable Refractometer model RA130 is a light-weight, easy-to-use and a handy system. It is a microprocessor controlled instrument with an LCD display. The sample can either be dripped on the prism or the prism of the system can also be dipped into the sample beaker to measure RI. Since the system is IP-65 protected the system can be directly immersed into the sample beaker also.

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Texture Analyser

Shimadzu Texture Analyser is ideal and effective for testing Food (Texture Profile Analysis), Pharmaceutical Substances, Packaging materials, Medical Devices etc.. It can be fixed with a variety of jigs and fixtures. For the Food Industries many parameters including Hardness, Brittleness, Adhesiveness, Cohesiveness, Elasticity, Rubberness, Chewability etc. can be obtained from the user friendly software Trapezium X Texture

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Universal / Tensile Testing Machine

Shimadzu Universal Testing Machine helps you to determine Tensile strength , Shear Test , Elongation Test for various materials which includes metals , plastics , rubber , wires etc .

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Contact Angle Meter

Kyowa Contact Angle Meter can perform Sessile Drop Method, Extension/Contraction method, Surface / Interfacial tension of liquids with Pendant drop method, Sliding Method & Dynamic Sliding Method. Model DMe-701 is the most automatic model and even stage movement and Droplet deposition are controlled through the PC. Right from the basest of models right upto Model DMe-701 are available depending on the application, capabilities, budget etc..

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Surface Tensiometer

Surface Tensiometers are widely used to check Surface Tension of Paints , Inks , Additives , Surfactant etc & same instrument is also used for the measurement of IFT - INTERFACIAL TENSION. The Interfacial Tension is mostly used in the study of quality of Transformer Oil.

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Mark-10 Corporation is a world-renowned manufacturer of Force and Torque measurement products. Their product profile includes Force gauges, Torque gauges, Test stands (manual), Test stands (motorised) and Force/Torque indicators.

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Sample Cells: Better By Design

Many Rudolph Polarimeter Cell designs offer significant advantages over traditional fused end glass cell designs as shown in Picture B. All glass cells are easily broken and often build up optically active residue on the inside of the glass ends. Also these cells do not have built in apertures so the light passing through the sample is easily affected by small air bubbles caught inside the cell as shown in Picture B. Rudolph does offer this style cell for those customers who prefer a fused glass end cell for use in their polarimeter or saccharimeter but doesn't recommend them


Rudolph Polarimeter Cells with built in apertures eliminate these problems because the stainless steel screw ends have apertures that are smaller than the internal diameter of the cell body to avoid the problem of the light being disturbed by small air bubbles along the surface of the cell. This design results in better optical rotation measurement stability (Figure 2).

As shown below, the screw caps have precision apertures which reduce the beam diameter to less than the internal diameter of the cell so that, when the cells are aligned with the beam, internal sidewall reflections and consequent depolarizing effects are minimized.


Easy Cleaning
Another advantage over fused end cells is that screw caps, washers, and end plates are easily removed for cleaning the glass ends, sample cell interiors, or for replacement of the washers and end glass. To reassemble the cell requires following the configuration of Figure 2 and then applying finger tight pressure to the screw caps. As the screw caps are turned, the washers are compressed against the end glass creating a leak proof seal with the precision ground cell ends. Minimal screw cap pressure and the compressibility of the washer ensures a tight seal without causing stress induced birefringence in the glass end plates.

Sample Cell Selection
Cells That Meet The Most Demanding Applications
With over 50 cells to choose from, Rudolph Research Analytical has a cell to meet every application.


Autopol®s Accept Sample Cells from 10mm to 200mm Long
Some polarimeters accept only special sample cells, with maximum lengths of 100mm. Autopol®s accept cells up to 200mm long. A 200mm sample cell offers twice the sensitivity when measuring the same solution in a 100mm cell. This additional optical path length is especially useful for solutions that have a small optical rotation. For precious samples and essential oils that have a large optical rotation, cells with only 0.05ml volumes and 10mm optical path lengths are available.

Continuous Sampling Capability

Access through gasketing in the top of the sample trough easily allows connection to a process stream (Figure 3). Readings can be downloaded via RS232 to a computer at fixed intervals or when prompted by an operator or an ASCI II command. Custom cells with special Swagelock® ferrules and fittings, and NEMA enclosures (as shown below) are available to allow connection to process streams.


Figure 3: Continuous Sampling

Picture C: Pour In Sampling With Temperature Correction


Picture D: Micro Volumes for HPLC

Easy Filling
Sample solutions are either poured, injected with a syringe or pipetted into the center well, side well or side tubulation. Air bubbles are released by tilting the cells side to side or to one side while filling. Flexible tipped pipettes capable of reaching from the center well to either end of the sample can be helpful in filling narrow bore center fill cells.

Micro Volumes for Chiral Detection After HPLC
If your application demands 1ml or less, Type 32 Cells offer less than 0.5ml volumes. These cells come standard with HPLC fittings which transform your polarimeter into a chiral detector when connected to a chiral column after HPLC (Picture D).

Pour In Sampling Capability
Rapid operation is achieved by using a Type 31 or 33 Flow Through Polarimeter Sample Cell as seen in Picture C. Once the sample cell is filled, each successive sample poured into the funnel will displace the previous sample through the drain tube. This method eliminates opening and closing the polarimeter or saccharimeter sample chamber door and interchanging sample cells. Measurements can be made about as rapidly as successive samples can be poured.

Temperature Correction
For sucrose or other high volume applications where the temperature coefficient is known, a 33 Cell can be used as in Picture C. This cell has a built-in temperature port which, when the temperature probe is inserted, automatically measures the sample temperature inside the cell and sends the temperature to the Autopol® IV or Autopol® 880 for correction to 20°C, 25°C or any customer specified temperature.

Two Temperature Control Solutions
Patented TempTrol™ Technology Eliminates the Need for a Water Bath

TempTrol heating and cooling transfer surface

Temperature is selected via touch screen

TempTrol cell with mating heating and cooling transfer surface

Place the TempTrol cell in your TempTrol equipped Autopol® IV or V sample chamber to measure to within ±0.2°C of the USP, EP, JP, or BP specified temperature (normally 20°C or 25°C ±0.5°C)

Rudolph provides a temperature validation cell with every TempTrol system. The temperature validation cell along with an optional NIST traceable thermometer is designed to validate the temperature control performance of the polarimeter and cell to ±0.2°C.

Temperature Control With Water Bath

As seen above, almost all Rudolph Research Analytical jacketed cells come standard with quick release fittings which allow cells to be easily removed from the polarimeter or saccharimeter sample chamber. Tubing is held in place by rubber gasketing on top of the trough and the door. Optional stopper (choose "S" after the cell part no.) for evaporative samples (Picture A).


Temperature control is obtained through the use of an external water bath and a jacketed cell (Figure 1).


Sample Cell Specifications

Type Description Catalog

Type 40T TempTrol Polarimeter Sample Cells: These cells are constructed of stainless steel and Delrin® and come with Luer® fittings at either end of the cell for easy filling with a plastic syringe or pipette. The cells have removable metal collars that allow for easy cleaning and glass cell end replacement. Select Hastelloy® "H" when working with strong acids or bases. All cells come with Luer® lock and plug stoppers. *Select HP for Automation or High Pressure applications.

40T-2.5-10-0.1 2.5 10 .1
40T-2.5-50.0.35 2.5 50 .35
40T-2.5-100-0.7-H 2.5 100 0.7
40T-5.0-10-0.2 5.0 10 0.2
40T-5-25.0.5 5 25 0.5
*40T-5.0-50-1-H 5.0 50 1
*40T-5.0-100-2-H 5.0 100 2
40T-5.0-200-4-H 5.0 200 4
 alt Type 14 Polarimeter Sample Cells: Pyrex glass with center well for easy filling via pour-in method or with a flexible tipped pipette. Glass or Delrin® stoppers are available as an option. Select "S" if you want a glass stopper. Select "DT" if you want a Delrin stopper with hole for Thermo Probe. 14-4.0-100-1.5-S/DT 4.0 100 1.5
14-8.5-100-6.0-S/DT 8.5 100 6.0
14-4.0-200-2.8-S/DT 4.0 200 2.8
14-8.5-200-12-S/DT 8.5 200 12
alt Type 14J Jacketed Polarimeter Sample Cells: Pyrex glass with center well. The main body of the cell is completely surrounded by a stainless steel jacket with quick release fittings at each end for circulation of temperature control fluids. Select "S" if you want a glass stopper. Select "DT" if you want a Delrin stopper with hole for Thermo Probe. Select HT for temperatures above 160°C. 14J-4.0-100-1.5-S/DT 4.0 100 1.5
14J-8.5-100-6.0-S/DT 8.5 100 6.0
14J-4.0-200-2.8-S/DT 4.0 200 2.8
14J-8.5-200-12-S/DT 8.5 200 12
alt Type 29 Flow-Through Sample Cells: Stainless steel with tubulations at each end for circulation of sample liquids. Designed so that sample flow washes interior windows eliminating dead volume in the optical path. 29-8.5-50-5 5 50 5.0
29-8.5-100-10 8.5 100 10
29-8.5-200-15 8.5 200 15
 alt Type 29J Flow-Through Jacketed Sample Cells: Type 29 but with a stainless steel jacket surrounding the main body of the cell for circulation of temperature control fluids. 29J-8.5-100-10 8.5 100 10
29J-8.5-200-15 8.5 200 15
 alt Type 30 Sample Cells: Stainless steel with a well at either end for easy filling. 30-8.5-50-5 8.5 50 5.0
30-4.0-100-3.7 4.0 100 3.7
30-8.5-100-10 8.5 100 10
30-4.0-200-5.0 4.0 200 5.0
30-8.5-200-15 8.5 200 15
alt Type 30J Stainless Steel Jacketed Sample Cells: Type 30 with stainless steel jacket surrounding the main body of the cell for circulation of temperature control fluids. 30J-4.0-100-3.7 4.0 100 3.7
30J-8.5-100-10 8.5 100 10
30J-4.0-200-5.0 4.0 200 5.0
30J-8.5-200-15 8.5 200 15
alt Type 41T TempTrol™ Flow-Through Sample Cells: Stainless steel funnel and exit tubing. The cell has a built-in temperature port which allows the temperature sensor and temperature control system to automatically measure and control the temperature inside the cell to 20°C, 25°C, or any input temperature within the range of the TempTrol™ temperature control system. 41T-8.5-100-10 8.5 100 10
41T-8.5-200-15 8.5 200 15
alt Type 33 or 33J Flow-Through Sample Cells: Stainless steel funnel and exit tubing. This cell has a built-in temperature port which allows the temperature sensor to automatically measure the sample temperature inside the cell and send the temperature to the Autopol® IV or Autopol® 880 for correction to 20°C or 25°C. It comes in jacketed and unjacketed versions - select "J" for jacketing. 33-5-50-1.0 5 50 1.0
33-5-100-2.0 5 100 2.0
33-5-200-4.0 5 200 4.0
33-8.5-100-10 8.5 100 10
33-8.5-200-15 8.5 200 15
33J-8.5-100-10 8.5 100 10
33J-8.5-200-15 8.5 200 15
alt Type 32 Small Volume Sample Cells: Stainless steel with small inlet and outlet ports on both ends of the cell for filling with a pipette with HPLC fittings. *Select HP for Automation or High Pressure Applications. 32-2.5-10-0.05 2.5 10 0.05
32-2.5-50-0.25 2.5 50 0.25
32-2.5-100-0.5 2.5 100 0.5
*32-5-25-0.5 5 25 0.5
*32-5-50-1.0 5 50 1.0
*32-5-100-2 5 100 2
32-5-200-4 5 200 4
 alt Type 32J Small Volume Jacketed Sample Cells: Type 32 with stainless steel jacket surrounding the main body of the cell for circulation of temperature control fluids. Also available with HPLC fittings. 32J-5-50-1.0 5 50 1.0
32J-2.5-100-0.5 2.5 100 0.5
alt Type 50FJ Fixed end glass cells with glass water jacket and small glass tubulations for connection to a waterbath. Comes with plastic stoppers. 50FJ-8.0-50-4 8.0 50 4.0
50FJ-8.0-100-8 8.0 100 8.0


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Biochemical Oxygen Demand

The BOD analysis is one of the most common applications for water laboratories. The test is used as an indication of the organic quality of water. All Skalar Robotic Analyzers can provide the automation for BOD according to EPA 405.1/ISO 5815-1. Various possibilities are available based on the sample load, budget and the level of automation. From 32 up to 120 BOD bottles can be set as uninterrupted sample batches. Sample trays can be added during analysis runs to handle any required sample load.

The analyzers can hold all available standard BOD bottles, and a wide range of sample trays are provided for various incubators. The automation of the labor-intensive BOD application can save up to 85% of operator time and provides the required consistency for the application.

A typical BOD analysis sequence:

Samples are pipetted, either manual or automatically (option), into the BOD bottles and the identity and the dilutions are entered or downloaded from LIMS into the sample table. Bottles are placed in the racks and placed on the Robotic Analyzer. Analyzer is started by operator. The manipulator sets the Oxygen probe in position, bottle is capped and filled with Nitrification inhibitor (ATU) and/or seed (option) and dilution water. Sample is then stirred and the initial Oxygen value is measured. The bottle is capped and the Oxygen probe and stirrer are rinsed before going to the next sample. The same procedure is followed until a value is recorded for all samples. The sample racks are placed in a 20°C incubator for 5 days. After incubation the racks are placed on the Robotic analyzer. The operator starts the analyzer. The bottle is decapped. The sample is stirred and the final Oxygen value is measured. The BOD value is calculated. The bottle is capped or the cap is discarded in a collector (SP100 only). This procedure is repeated until all samples are measured. The data can be presented on screen, printed or converted to a file compatible with other software and LIMS's.

If there is a requirement for other analyses such as pH, conductivity, alkalinity and turbidity then these methods can be combined with BOD on the same robot.

Steps of Automation

  • Pippetting of the sample (option)
  • Addition of Nitrification inhibitor (ATU) and/or Seed
  • Addition of dilution water
  • Sample homogenization
  • Measurement of initial Dissolved Oxygen value (DO1)
  • Probe/stirrer rinsing between each measurement
  • Bottle capping/decapping (option)
  • Measurement of final DO2 value
  • Calculation of BOD according required regulations
Comparison Skalar analyzers alt
Sample capacity

32 bottles


54 bottles


90 bottles


120 bottles


Probes 1 Up to 2 Up to 6 Up to 5
Auto capping/decapping - - Dual Single
Sample pipetting station Option Option Option Option
Multiple parameters analysis Yes Yes Yes Yes
Barcode reader Option Option Option Option
Typical throughput 40-50 bottles/hr 80-100 bottles/hr 160-200 bottles/hr 200-250 bottles/hr




Page Under Construction

Skalar's extensive range of Robotic Analyzers offers the routine analytical laboratories flexible and tailor-made automation solutions. Automation is available for e.g. BOD, COD, pH, Conductivity (EC), Alkalinity, Carbonate/Bicarbonate, Turbidity, Color, Ion Selective Electrodes (ISE) applications and Clay fraction analysis etc.. Combinations of analyses or custom-made applications are possible. All applied methods are in compliance with international regulations ISO, EPA, Standard Methods and DIN etc.

The Robotic line consists of four different models:

  • SP10 (small sized batches)
  • SP50 (Medium sized batches)
  • SP1000 (Large sized batches)
  • SP100 (Large sized batches)

Every model has their specific advantages, but all providing hands-free, walk-away automation. Each Robot has a different capacity, from small to large sample batches and from small to large sample volumes.


The design of the Robotic Analyzers allows the instruments to meet your exact requirements resulting in increased productivity and accuracy of results, while reducing the sample turn-around time, costs per sample and eliminating errors and operator/sample interaction.

The analyzers are equipped as standard with a probe and stirrer and optionally the analyzer can be extended with dispenser(s) and diluent pump(s). Some models have multiple probe(s) and automatic bottle (de)-capper possibilities. Various removable sample racks are available for both standard and customized sample containers. A range of detectors (up to 6) can be connected to the analyzer for multiple analyses either sequential or simultaneous depending on application and analyzer model. Standard commercially available meters and probes are used.

Optionally the system can be configured as a pipetting station that can dilute the original sample to different sized vials, which can be offered to different instruments for analysis.

The analyzers are supplied with software for data handling and instrument control. The versatility and flexibility of the analyzers and the software allows an easy integration into any laboratory environment.



Total Carbon and Total Nitrogen / Protein Analyzer for solid and liquid samples

The analysis of Carbon and Nitrogen is important in soil, plant, animal feed, food samples, sediments and sludge samples. The Skalar PrimacsSNC Analyzer combines the analysis of Total Carbon (TC) and Total Nitrogen (TN) in one unit using high temperature catalytic combustion. The samples are introduced into the high temperature combustion oven by the unique vertical "bottom-to-top"sample introduction system.

At 1050°C the carbon is completely oxidized to CO2 in the presence of a catalyst. The CO2 is measured by Non Dispersive Infra Red Detection (NDIR) for Total Carbon. The analysis of Nitrogen is based upon the well-proven DUMAS technology. Nitrogen is converted in NxOy which is is reduced at 600°C to N2. The N2 gas is measured by Thermal Conductivity Detection (TCD). The PrimacsSNC analyzer provides an accurate and reliable solution for the automation of Total Carbon and Total Nitrogen analysis and has been designed as an easy-to-use and low maintenance analyzer. Due to the unique vertical "bottom-to-top" sample introduction the sample ashes remain in the crucible after the analysis and are taken out of the instrument with removal of the crucible. This avoids sample ash build-up in the combustion zone and therefore reduces the maintenance. The re-usable crucibles and the low consumption of combustion and carrier gas result in a low cost-per-test.

The PrimacsSERIES Carbon / Nitrogen Analyzers have been designed to offer a true solution of Carbon and/or Nitrogen analysis in solid samples. Depending on the requirement of the laboratory and the applications a variety of analyzers is available.

Products and Accessories

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Why Agaram?

  • Instruments only from world-renowned manufacturers
  • Efficient after-sales service
  • Strong presence throughout India
  • Round the clock support via email and phone
  • Readily available instrument demonstration at a location of your choice

Demo Requisition


Seeing is Believing

Email us your details and we shall conduct a demo of our system at your facility.

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